Microsoft HoloLens is made up of specialized components that together enable holographic computing. In addition to the Intel CPU, the HPU also helps in processing a large amount of data. This custom silicon efficiently processes a large amount of data per second from the sensors. HoloLens understands gestures and where you look, and maps the world all around you, all in real time.
The HPU is actually built on processors from a company called Cadence. The HoloLens is powered by 24 Cadence Tensilica processors enabling the device to achieve extremely high performance while still meeting the strict low-power requirements of a battery-powered device. The Tensilica processors boost algorithmic processing power by 200X and can perform 1 trillion operations per second.
Cadence offers Tensilica Customizable Processor and DSP IP with which you can build a processor or DSP, optimized for your particular algorithms. Microsoft is making using of it for spatial mapping and other stuff in HoloLens.
You can read more about HPU architecture here.