Microsoft yesterday released Windows 10 Build 17643 to Insiders on the Skip Ring. With this new build, you can now copy/paste text from/to Linux/WSL Consoles. To try out this feature, enable the “Use Ctrl+Shift+C/V as Copy/Paste” option in the Console “Options” properties page (check out the image above for reference). Microsoft also mentioned that this setting can be set independently for each shell or shortcut.
This Windows 10 Build 17643 also includes new improvements to Sets, enabling more apps to make use of the feature, and also a number of other improvements. Read about them here.